“Brutality begins where knowledge ends. Ignorance and compulsion appear simultaneously.” ~Charles de Kunffy.
It’s rampant in every discipline, every breed. I see it in training barns, show arenas, boarding facilities, and backyards: people using devices that restrict their horses’ natural movement. I am appalled at the practice, but what really baffles me is how many otherwise loving owners there are who daily subject their horses to painful devices in order to force a particular look or position.
I am convinced that the majority of horsemen using devices just do not realize the harm they cause to their horse. Unfortunately there are also many amateurs and professionals who DO know and choose a quick result over the well-being of their horse.
There are too many devices to discuss all in one post, so for now, let’s focus on draw reins, tie-downs, and martingales. Their general purpose is to create a certain head carriage that imitates the natural posture of horses when they are motivated to “strutt” in elegance and grace – art in motion.
When a horse is excited we see a natural arching of the neck and vertical position of the head. But this is only the front end of the horse. Looking at the whole horse, we can see that this arched neck and vertical head position is created through hindquarter engagement. The horse shifts his weight back, and the head comes up. It is a balanced lightness resulting from a natural rhythm and suppleness. Headset is the last step, not the first, so this is not something that can be properly achieved by forcing a horse to carry his head artificially.
Draw reins, tie-downs, and martingales not only artificially set the horse’s head, they also prevent a horse from moving his back, neck, and hindquarter freely. The horse may have the “look” of being naturally arched, but the artificial head carriage will take its toll on the body. Such restrictive devices can cause both mental and physical damage, often beyond repair. Damage to the jaw, neck, back, and hocks often lead to the eventual breakdown of the horse. Lameness develops and behavior problems frequently surface. Gaits can become irregular. Strength, elasticity, and balance diminish.
See http://horsesforlife.com/DrawReinsPictogram for pictures of draw reins in action. Notice how restricted and unnatural the horse’s movement is.
Now look at the poll when a horse naturally arches his neck. It will always be the highest point, no matter how high he holds his neck. The flexion is at the poll, not a few vertebrae behind the poll.
Using head-setting devices can force the horse to bend behind the natural point of flexion, which in time causes lasting, irreversible damage. Look around at shows or at photos online and you can easily spot horses that have been forced into this artificial bend during their training. If only judges refused to award horses carrying themselves this way, maybe these devices would not be so popular.
I often tell my students not to “humanize” the horse, but in this case, I think there is a credible analogy to be made: pretend your head is tied so your neck is bent in any direction. Keep it there. Walk, jog, and run like that. Stand like that. How long before you feel cramped, painful, tired, frustrated, angry? If you were really tied that way, how would you try to release the pressure? Would you fight for relief? I expect it would become difficult to move with grace and beauty.
The horse in comparison is limited in his ability to protect himself and relieve the pain. His power is greatly diminished. Remember, he is a flight animal. Unable to flee, he may resort to fighting to get relief. But if he fights, he’s called a “rogue” and punished. It’s a no-win situation for the horse.
I find it incredibly unsettling and sad to see a horse with eyes that show pain, anger, or resignation. Please look at your own horse. Be honest with yourself, and if you have been using such devices, question your own motivation. Do you want to win so badly that you’ll sacrifice the well-being of your equine partner? He has no choice…but you do!
Horses CAN be trained without causing pain and long term damage. Take the time to learn the methods of lateral and longitudinal bending, and how to engage the body and communicate with the mind. Understanding all of the physical aspects we observe in the horse’s natural posturing: impulsion, relation of the spine, rhythm, and flexibility, is the first step in learning to duplicate it under saddle.
It might take a bit longer than the tie-down method, but the results will last a lifetime. You will have a physically healthy horse as well as a willing partner.